Pearl Powder Scientific Research

1. Pearl – Prolongs Life
2. Pearl – Reduces wrinkles, aging, sunspots, promotes radiance and youth
3. Pearl – Grows stronger bones by stimulating new bone growth and increasing bone density
4. Pearl – Strengthens the heart, promotes regular heart rhythm, recovery from heart disease
5. Pearl – Lowers Blood pressure
6. Pearl – Lowers Cholesterol levels
7. Pearl – Improves Eye sight
8. Pearl – Improves Memory and Immune System
9. Pearl – Calms nervous system, reduce stress and promotes restful sleep
10. Pearl – Improves Improve children’s IQ, school performance, and overall health
11. Pearl – Powerful Antioxidant
12. Pearlcium – Superior source of calcium and essential trace minerals
13. Pearl – Improves Osteoporosis

1. Pearl Prolongs Life

Chinese scientists have shown that pearl powder can prolong the life span of animals in several research models.

Suzhou Medical School
Scientists found that by immersing mulberry leaf, a favorite meal for silkworm’s, in a 5 % pearl powder solution, that it can increase the adult phase of silkworm (moth) by 57.7 %. When they fed mice their meals containing 1 % pearl powder, they found that the mice’s life span on average was increased by 21.6%.

Guangxi Chinese Medicine Research Institute
Scientists studied the effect on fruit fly’s life span when adding pearl powder to meals . Compared to the placebo group, the average life span of fruit flies fed with 0.5% pearl powder increased from 55.2 – 74.4 days for female fruit flies and from 45 – 64.6 days for male fruit flies. Fruit flies’ longest life span is increased from 70-100 days for female fruit flies and from 60-102 days for male fruit flies.

Let’s translate the anti-aging effects of the profound life extending phenomena as observed in the silkworm, mice, and fruit flies from the pearl powder, it indicates that our life span could increase from 80 years to at least 96 years old on average. Possibly another compelling reason our ancestors found pearl powder so precious! Current scientific research is demonstrates that pearl powder has a definitive anti-aging effect.

2. Pearl Reduces Wrinkles, Aging, Sunspots and Promotes Radiance & Youth

Scientists at Biophysics Laboratory at the Museum D’Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France, have found that pearl nacre, can enhance regeneration of fibroblasts. In their research, these scientists implanted pearl nacre in the dermis of rats to test the ingredient’s effect on skin fibroblasts. They found that pearl nacre enhanced the fibroblasts’ synthesis of the extracellular matrix. It increased the production of components that help cells stick together (which reinforces the barrier function of the skin) and their cellular communication with each other. And it also helped collagen − the main structural protein in the skin − regenerate itself.

This research scientifically confirms the traditional wisdom that pearl nacre can increase skin regeneration, thus help improve skin tone and promote youthful looking skin. It shows that pearl nacre does this by increasing collagen and other extracellular matrix production and by increasing cellular communication. However, it tells us more than this. Since fibroblasts are “builder cells” that abound in all connective tissue that surround our muscles, skin, and organs, by enhancing fibroblasts regeneration, pearl nacre in fact can help keep your body in shape and
make your muscle and organs strong. This research explains, at least partly, why pearl nacre can make your heart beat stronger and more regular and help improve eye health as being shown in other scientific research.

 3. Pearl Grows Stronger Bones by stimulating new bone growth & increasing bone density

In 1992, Museum D’Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France, studied the osteogenic properties of pearl nacre (again, this is the exact material that comprises pearl).56 – 59 Pearl nacre chips were placed on a layer of human osteoblasts. They found that the osteoblasts that were near the pearl nacre chips proliferated, and then attached themselves to the chips. Even more amazing, the osteoblasts formed a complete sequence of bone in the presence of the pearl nacre. How do we know it was the pearl nacre that caused this? Because only the osteoblasts surrounding the pearl nacre chips induced this type of mineralization.

In 2003, the same group of French scientists decided to investigate pearl fillings. They placed pieces of pearl nacre in experimental cavities in the lumbar vertebrae of sheep. They found that the insertion of this pearl nacre induced the production of layers of newly formed bone adjacent to the implanted pearl nacre filling.56 They also discovered that inserting the pearl nacre caused an increased mineralization of the sheep’s bone, which means that the bone surrounding the cavity actually became stronger.

Next, the scientists compared pearl-filled cavities with empty cavities and with cavities patched with the normal acrylic polymer filling used by dentists, which is called PMMA. They found there was no new bone formation in the empty cavities or in those filled with PMMA.56 In fact, they discovered that PMMA actually causes necrosis – or cell death – of the surrounding bone cells. It also changes bone architecture and causes a significant reduction in bone formation and mineralization.

These scientists studied the osteogenic activity of pearl in a culture of simulated body fluid and cells, with the intent to compare its effects to that of mother-of-pearl and hydroxyapatite, a form of calcium known to be osteogenic. They found that not only did pearl stimulate the growth of osteoblasts, but the proliferation occurred more quickly and smoothly than on either of the other substances.60 In fact, an abundant extracellular matrix occupied the whole pearl surface after just five days. The researchers concluded that pearl is a superior osteo- inductive material with high osteogenic activity. In other words, pearl can build better bone than mother-of-pearl and hydroxyapatite.

4. Pearl Strengthens the Heart, promotes a regular heart rhythm, and aids recovery from heart disease

Research shows that pearl powder taken internally can improve heart function.
Shanghai Medical University studied pearl’s pharmacology and its effect on heart function.77 They found that pearl powder can enhance the heart’s contraction without affecting the frequency of heart beat, which means more oxygen-rich blood is pumped per beat through the circulatory system without increasing numbers of beats. This means the heart is working smarter and more efficiently; not harder. The research also indicates that pearl powder can help the heart’s pacemaker keep its natural rhythm, helping rebuff and recover from the effects of arrhythmias or abnormal heart rhythm.78

5. Pearl Lowers Blood Pressure

Zhejiang Chinese Traditional Medicine Research Institute and Zhejiang University No. 1 Adjunct Hospital conducted a human clinical trial to study the effect of pearl powder on high blood pressure.79 The 90 patients in the study took 500 milligram of pearl powder twice a day for 30 days. The average systolic pressure dropped from 161.0 mmHg to 139.2 mmHg – a decline of 15 percent. The average diastolic pressure dropped from 96.0 mmHg to 84.6 mmHg – a decline of 13 percent.

In another similar human clinical trial with 75 patients, Kangmin Gong and his colleagues obtained similar successful results.80 It has also been reported that patients notice fewer headaches, less dizziness and irritability, and improved sleep after taking pearl powder.

Shaanxi Xian Jiaotong University Adjunct Hospital also studied pearl powder’s effects on blood pressure. They found that pearl powder can lower the blood pressure of mice, improve their sleep, and make them more calm.81

6. Pearl Lowers Cholesterol

Blood lipid research indicates that pearl powder taken internally can reduce lipid peroxide and cholesterol levels of coronary disease patients.78

Zhejiang Medical School conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled human clinical trial to study the effect of pearl powder on lipid peroxides and cholesterol content of coronary disease patients.78 Twenty patients took pearl powder for a month. Seventeen patients took placebo. The researchers found that for the patients taking pearl powder, their harmful lipid peroxide and total cholesterol levels were significantly reduced, while for patients taking placebo, there was not much change on average. This can help stop the formation process of athroscelerosis, before it can clog your arteries, so it never becomes a stress on your cardiovascular system.

7. Pearl Improves Eye Sight

For millenia, Chinese have used pearl to enhance their eyesight and treat eye diseases, such as myopia. Department of Chemistry of Huazhong University of Science and Technology provided scientific validation that pearl powder can help prevent and treat chickens with myopia.66, 76

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8. Pearl Improves Memory and Immune System

Pearl powder not only extends life span, it also improves the quality of life. Studies done in China demonstrated that pearl powder can boost immune function in animals.74,75 In one study, it found that taking pearl powder for 12 days can enhance mice’s antibody production and increase cellular protective functions.

Furthermore, it was found that after giving mice meals containing 1% pearl powder for 14 days, mice make much less mistakes during study test. This study indicates that pearl powder can improve learning ability and memory in mice.75

9. Pearl Calms Nervous System, Reduce Stress and Promote Restful Sleep

Suzhou Medical School studied the effects of pearl powder on the rabbit’s nervous system.89 They found that pearl powder could relieve pain and promote a calming effect on their nervous system.
The researchers discovered also that after injecting the rabbits with a pearl powder solution, their brain production of 5-HT, 5-HIAA, and NA increased. These are positive “elevated mood” neurotransmitters, and this research indicates that pearl powder can reduce the level of stress, and promote a more peaceful, positive internal biochemistry.

10. Pearl Improves children’s IQ, School Performance, and Overall Health

Chinese scientists found that pearl powder can improve children’s IQ. In one study, they had more than 200 children with mental disabilities take 750-1500 mg of pearl powder every day.90 After three months, the IQ of 92% of the children has been improved and more than 80% of the children’s IQ were enhanced to normal range.

Nanjin Second Hospital and China Medical University studied the effect of a pearl powder supplement on mice. They found that the mice that had taken pearl powder for 12 days did better in maze tests and had stronger immunity than the mice that did not.74 In other words, pearl powder made the mice smarter and healthier.

11. Pearl, The Powerful antioxidant

Pearl Powder is a powerful antioxidant. It can both enhance the activity of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), one of the body’s premier antioxidant enzymes, and also reduce peroxidation, one of the major aging processes of our body.

Jiangxi Medicine Research Institute studied the antioxidant effect of pearl nacre.57 However, in addition to measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, they also monitored SOD activity. The researchers found that after taking pearl nacre solution for 30 days, the SOD activity of the mice increased and their LPO activity decreased.

Suzhou Medical School studied the effect of pearl powder on the content of peroxidized lipids in the mouse heart and brain.57 These researchers found that after taking pearl powder for just 30 days, mice experienced a decrease in the amount of peroxidized lipids in their brains and hearts – indicating that pearl powder slows down and may reverse some of the age-related damage. The results of this research were further confirmed in several other independent studies.57-63

12. Pearlcium, A superior source of calcium and essential trace minerals

In 1998, Wuhan Mineralogy University, conducted human and animal studies comparing the bioavailability of pearl powder to that of other calcium supplements in a human clinical trial.55  Their studies show that pearl powder is absorbed twice as efficiently as conventional calcium carbonate supplements (by far the most common form of calcium in dietary supplements). Scientific tests reveal that calcium and essential trace minerals in pearl has a natural highly aligned micro-crystalline structure.

The most recent scientific discoveries reveal that the regulation of calcium involved in pearl formation is similar to humans’ at the DNA level. Our human body shares a deep kinship with pearl. Pearl is completely compatible with human bone. It stimulates new bone growth, increases mineralization, which enhances bone density.

13. Pearl Improves Osteoporosis

Shanghai Medical School Senior Medicine Research Center studied pearl powder for the treatment of osteoporosis in mice.53,54 Some mice were given a pearl powder formulation for 90 days; others were not. What the researchers discovered was that the mice that received the pearl powder formulation experienced significantly higher bone calcium content, bone mineral density, and total bone weight in comparison to the mice that did not. This is highly encouraging, but no guarantee, not yet anyway, as mice are used as the test subjects because they are excellent indicators for the expected effect on human metabolism.

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Pearl Powder References:

1.Li S, Xie L, Zhang C, Zhang Y, Gu M, Zhang R.: “Cloning and expression of a pivotal calcium metabolism regulator:calmodulin involved in shell formation from pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata).” Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 Jul;138(3):235-43.

2.Duplat D, Puisségur M, Bédouet L, Rousseau M, Boulzaguet H, Milet C, Sellos D, Van Wormhoudt A, Lopez E.“Identificationof calconectin, a calcium-binding protein specifically expressed by the mantle of Pinctada margaritifera.”, FEBS Lett. 2006 May1;580(10):2435-41. Epub 2006 Apr 7.

3.Shen X, Belcher AM, Hansma PK, Stucky GD, Morse DE.: “Molecular cloning and characterization of lustrin A, a matrixprotein from shell and pearl pearl of Haliotis rufescens.” J Biol Chem. 1997 Dec 19;272(51): 32472-81.

4.Zhang Y, Xie L, Meng Q, Jiang T, Pu R, Chen L, Zhang R. “A novel matrix protein participating in the pearl frameworkformation of pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.” Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Jul; 135(3): 565-73.

5.Tsukamoto D, Sarashina I, Endo K: “Structure and expression of an unusually acidic matrix protein of pearl oyster shells.” Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Aug 6;320(4):1175-80.

6.Michenfelder M, Fu G, Lawrence C, Weaver JC, Wustman BA, Taranto L, Evans JS, Morse DE.: “Characterization of twomolluscan crystal-modulating biomineralization proteins and identification of putative mineral binding domains.” Biopolymers.2003 Dec; 70(4):522-33.

7.Blank S, Arnoldi M, Khoshnavaz S, Treccani L, Kuntz M, Mann K, Grathwohl G, Fritz M., “The pearl protein perlucin nucleatesgrowth of calcium carbonate crystals.” J Microsc. 2003 Dec; 212(Pt 3):280-91

8.Miyamoto H, Miyoshi F, Kohno J.: “The carbonic anhydrase domain protein pearlin is expressed in the epithelial cells of themantle and acts as a negative regulator in calcification in the mollusc Pinctada fucata.” Zoolog Sci. 2005 Mar;22(3):311-5.

9.Yan Z, Fang Z, Ma Z, Deng J, Li S, Xie L, Zhang R, “Biomineralization: functions of calmodulin-like protein in the shellformation of pearl oyster.” Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Sep;1770(9):1338-44. Epub 2007 Jul

10.Takakura D, Norizuki M, Ishikawa F, Samata T., “Isolation and Characterization of the N-linked Oligosaccharides in Pearlinfrom Pinctada fucata.” Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2008 Feb 6

11.Wang N, Lee YH, Lee J., “Recombinant perlucin nucleates the growth of calcium carbonate crystals: Molecular cloning andcharacterization of perlucin from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.” Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2008Feb;149(2):354-61. Epub 2007 Oct

12.Yan Z, Jing G, Gong N, Li C, Zhou Y, Xie L, Zhang R. “N40, a novel nonacidic matrix protein from pearl oyster pearl,facilitates nucleation of aragonite in vitro.” Biomacromolecules, 2007 Nov;8(11):3597-601. Epub 2007 Oct

13.Fan W, Li C, Li S, Feng Q, Xie L, Zhang R, “Cloning, characterization, and expression patterns of three sarco/endoplasmicreticulum Ca2+-ATPase isoforms from pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata)”, Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2007Sep;39(9):722-30

14.Yano M, Nagai K, Morimoto K, Miyamoto H, “A novel pearl protein N19 in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.”, Biochem BiophysRes Commun. 2007 Oct 12;362(1):158-63. Epub 2007 Aug

15.Fan W, Li C, Wang X, Gong N, Xie L, Zhang R., “Cloning, characterization and expression analysis of calcium channel betasubunit from pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata).”, J Biosci Bioeng. 2007 Jul;104(1):47-54.

16.Metzler RA, Abrecht M, Olabisi RM, Ariosa D, Johnson CJ, Frazer BH, Coppersmith SN, Gilbert PU., “Architecture of columnarpearl, and implications for its formation mechanism.” Phys Rev Lett. 2007 Jun 29;98(26):268102. Epub 2007 Jun 29.

17.Xie LP, Wu YT, Dai YP, Li Q, Zhang RQ. “A novel glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored alkaline phosphatase dwells in thehepatic duct of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.” Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2007 Sep-Oct;9(5):613-23. Epub 2007 Jul 13

18.Suzuki M, Sakuda S, Nagasawa H, “Identification of chitin in the prismatic layer of the shell and a chitin synthase gene fromthe Japanese pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.” Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Jul;71(7):1735-44. Epub 2007 Jul

19.Lin AY, Chen PY, Meyers MA, “The growth of pearl in the abalone shell.” Acta Biomater. 2008 Jan;4(1):131-8. Epub 2007 Jul9

20.Ma Z, Huang J, Sun J, Wang G, Li C, Xie L, Zhang R, “A novel extrapallial fluid protein controls the morphology of pearllamellae in the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.” J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 10;282(32):23253-63. Epub 2007 Jun 8

21.Huang J, Zhang C, Ma Z, Xie L, Zhang R, “A novel extracellular EF-hand protein involved in the shell formation of pearloyster.” Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Jul;1770(7):1037-44. Epub 2007 Mar 20

22.Liu HL, Liu SF, Ge YJ, Liu J, Wang XY, Xie LP, Zhang RQ, Wang Z, “Identification and characterization of a biomineralizationrelated gene PFMG1 highly expressed in the mantle of Pinctada fucata.”, Biochemistry. 2007 Jan 23;46(3):844-51.

23.Naganuma T, Ogawa T, Hirabayashi J, Kasai K, Kamiya H, Muramoto K, “Isolation, characterization and molecular evolutionof a novel pearl shell lectin from a marine bivalve, Pteria penguin.” Mol Divers. 2006 Nov;10(4):607-18. Epub 2006 Nov 17

24.Zhang C, Li S, Ma Z, Xie L, Zhang R., “A novel matrix protein p10 from the pearl of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) and its effects on both CaCO3 crystal formation and mineralogenic cells.”, Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2006 Nov-Dec;8(6):624-33. Epub 2006Sep 18

25.Asakura T, Hamada M, Ha SW, Knight DP., “Conformational study of silklike peptides modified by the addition of the calcium-binding sequence from the shell pearlous matrix protein MSI60 using 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy.” Biomacromolecules. 2006Jun;7(6):1996-2002

26.Duplat D, Puisségur M, Bédouet L, Rousseau M, Boulzaguet H, Milet C, Sellos D, Van Wormhoudt A, Lopez E., “Identificationof calconectin, a calcium-binding protein specifically expressed by the mantle of Pinctada margaritifera.”, FEBS Lett. 2006 May1;580(10):2435-41. Epub 2006 Apr 7

27.Li S, Xie L, Ma Z, Zhang R, “cDNA cloning and characterization of a novel calmodulin-like protein from pearl oyster Pinctadafucata.” FEBS J. 2005 Oct;272(19):4899-910

28.Wang XX, Xie L, Wang R., “Biological fabrication of pearlous coating on titanium dental implant”, Biomaterials. 2005Nov;26(31):6229-32.
29.Miyamoto H, Miyoshi F, Kohno J., “The carbonic anhydrase domain protein pearlin is expressed in the epithelial cells of themantle and acts as a negative regulator in calcification in the mollusc Pinctada fucata.”, Zoolog Sci. 2005 Mar;22(3):311-5.

30.Li S, Xie L, Zhang C, Zhang Y, Gu M, Zhang R., “Cloning and expression of a pivotal calcium metabolism regulator:calmodulin involved in shell formation from pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata).”, Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2004Jul;138(3):235-43

31.Tsukamoto D, Sarashina I, Endo K., “Structure and expression of an unusually acidic matrix protein of pearl oyster shells,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Aug 6;320(4):1175-80.

32.Suzuki M, Murayama E, Inoue H, Ozaki N, Tohse H, Kogure T, Nagasawa H, “Characterization of Prismalin-14, a novel matrixprotein from the prismatic layer of the Japanese pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata)”, Biochem J. 2004 Aug 15;382(Pt 1):205-13

33.Matsushiro A, Miyashita T, Miyamoto H, Morimoto K, Tonomura B, Tanaka A, Sato K., “Presence of protein complex isprerequisite for aragonite crystallization in the pearlous layer.” Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2003 Jan-Feb;5(1):37-44

34.hang Y, Xie L, Meng Q, Jiang T, Pu R, Chen L, Zhang R., “A novel matrix protein participating in the pearl frameworkformation of pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.”, Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Jul;135(3):565-73.

35.Samata T, Hayashi N, Kono M, Hasegawa K, Horita C, Akera S, “A new matrix protein family related to the pearlous layerformation of Pinctada fucata.”, FEBS Lett. 1999 Nov 26;462(1-2):225-9.

36.Shen X, Belcher AM, Hansma PK, Stucky GD, Morse DE, “Molecular cloning and characterization of lustrin A, a matrix proteinfrom shell and pearl pearl of Haliotis rufescens.”, J Biol Chem. 1997 Dec 19;272(51):32472-81.

37.Bédouet L, Marie A, Dubost L, Péduzzi J, Duplat D, Berland S, Puisségur M, Boulzaguet H, Rousseau M, Milet C, Lopez E., “Proteomics analysis of the pearl soluble and insoluble proteins from the oyster Pinctada margaritifera”, Mar Biotechnol (NY).2007 Sep-Oct;9(5):638-49. Epub 2007 Jul 21.

38.Chen D, Wang J, Xue F, “The comparison of the chemical components of Pearl and mother of pearl’, Natural ProductsResearch and Development 1990 Sept, 2(3) 13-15

39.Cehn D, Wang J, Xue L, “Comparative Studies of Amino Acids and Trace Elements of Pearl and Pearl Shell”, Natural ProductsResearch and Development 1990 Sept, 2(3) 10-12

40.Li X, Cheng L, Fand J, Lu H, “Studies of trace elements of Mother of Pearl”, Chinese Ocean Medicine Journal 1990, 3: 5-7

41.Sun J, “Comparison study of inorganic elements of three different kinds of pearl”, Chinese Medicine Journal 1992, 27(8):469

42.Wilt FH “Development biology meets materials science: morphogenesis of biomineralized structures.” Developmental Biology2005 April 1, 280 (1): 15-25

43.Metzler RA, Abrecht M, Olabisi RM, Ariosa D, Johnson CJ, Frazer BH, Coppersmith SN, Gilbert PU., “Architecture of columnarpearl, and implications for its formation mechanism.” Phys Rev Lett. 2007 Jun 29;98(26):268102. Epub 2007 Jun 29

44.Atlan G, Delattre O, Berland S, LeFaou A, Nabias G, Cot D, Lopez E. “Interface between bone and pearl implants in sheep.” Biomaterials. 1999 Jun;20(11):1017-22.

45.Camprasse S, Camprasse G, Pouzol M, Lopez E, “Artificial dental root made of natural calcium carbonate (Bioracine)”, ClinMater. 1990;5(2-4):235-50.

46.Lamghari M, Berland S, Laurent A, Huet H, Lopez E. “Bone reactions to pearl injected percutaneously into the vertebrae of sheep.” Biomaterials.2001 Mar;22(6):555-62.

47.Lopez E, Vidal B, Berland S, Camprasse S, Camprasse G, Silve C. “Demonstration of the capacity of pearl to induce boneformation by human osteoblasts maintained in vitro.” Tissue Cell. 1992;24(5):667-79.

48.Lamghari M, Almeida MJ, Berland S, Huet H, Laurent A, Milet C, Lopez E. “Stimulation of bone marrow cells and boneformation by pearl: in vivo and in vitro studies.” Bone. 1999 Aug;25(2 Suppl):91S-94S

49.Shen Y, Zhu J, Zhang H, Zhao F. “In vitro osteogenetic activity of pearl.” Biomaterials. 2006 Jan;27(2):281-7.

50.Cognet JM, Fricain JC, Reau AF, Lavignolle B, Baquey C, Lepeticorps Y.“Pinctada margaritifera pearl (mother-of-pearl):physico-chemical and biomechanical properties, and in vitro cytocompatibility” Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 2003 Jun;89(4):346-52.

51.Silve C, Lopez E, Vidal B, Smith DC, Camprasse S, Camprasse G, Couly G. “Pearl initiates biomineralization by humanosteoblasts maintained in vitro.” Calcif Tissue Int. 1992 Nov;51(5):363-9

52.Duplat D, Gallet M, Berland S, Marie A, Dubost L, Rousseau M, Kamel S, Milet C, Brazier M, Lopez E, Bédouet L. “The effectof molecules in mother-of-pearl on the decrease in bone resorption through the inhibition of osteoclast cathepsin K.” Biomaterials. 2007 Nov;28(32):4769-4778. Epub 2007 Aug 7

53.Hongfu Wang, Guangxin Zhou, Weifang Jin, Xingdi Li, Shifang Wong, Junhua Yang: “The healing effect of pearl formula onmice with osteoporosis.” Acta Academae Medicine Shanghai 25(1):43, 1998

54.Wu Z., Zhou B., Tan S., Wu A, “Study of the effect of pearl formula osteoporosis”, Chinese Traditional Patent Medicine,23(10):766-768, 2001

55.Li X., Yu P, Chen Y., Jiang Z., “Study on Bioavailability of pearl”, Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Study of ChineseMedicine 1998, 14(2): 40-41

56.Cao G, Xu Z, Wei H, Yao S, Liu Y. “Pearl in health-care” Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1996 Oct; 21(10):635-8 inside backcover

57.Shengshan Hu, Dayuan Wang, Jianpin Liu, Hong Yu, Hongwen Leng, Liwei Tan, Yuanzhen Xiong:”Research on anti-agingeffects of pearl water solution.” Chinese Herbal Medicine 25(4): 203, 1994

58.Chen Y, Tan W, Qian Z., Gu Z., Pan J., Zhuang X.: “Experimental Study of the antioxidation effect of pearl” Senoir MedicineJournal 1988, 8(2): 109-120

59.Tong ZH, Gu WZ, Zhu G, Zhao YW. “The anti-aging effect of pearl oyster shell powder (POSP).” Journal of Traditional ChineseMedicine. 1988 Dec;8(4):247-50.

60.Yijun Chen, Tianxi Hu, Xucheng Chen: “Study of the antioxidation effect of pearl using chemical method.” Senoir MedicineJournal 8(6): 288, 1988

61.Zhi Xu, Derong Hu, Cai Cao, Huanying Wei, Shuhan Yao, Yuan Liu: “The effects of pearl on fruit fly’s life span and mice’santi-radiation ability.” Chinese Medicine Journal 10(2): 29, 1998

62.Yijun Chen, WeishengTan, Zengping Qian, Zhenlun Gu, Jianxin Fan, Xinmei Zhuang: “Research on the anti-aging effects of pearl powder.” Senoir Medicine Journal 8(2): 199, 1988

63.Jian Wang, Dehui Hou: “The effect of pearl on free radical content and fruit fly’s life span.” Acta Academia Medicine Suzhou17(2): 218, 1997

64.Jian Wang, Dehui Hou: “The effects of Pearl on animal’s immunity, learning and memory.” Acta Academiae Medicinal Suzhou17(2): 216, 1997

65.Wang C, Ning X, Cheng J, Mo H., Song Z, “The effect of Pearl on Mice’s Immune Function”, Acta Academiae MedicineGuangxi 1994, 11(3): 280-282

66.Xu H, Huang K, Gao Q, Gao Z, Han X.: “A study on the prevention and treatment of myopia with pearl on chicks.” PharmacolRes. Jul;44(1):1-6. 2001

67.Yunyi Zhang, Wenwu Gu, Xinrui Zhong: “The Pharmacology and Effects of Water Soluble Pearl on Heart Functions.” ChineseMedicine 16(9): 35, 1994

68.Huang YW. “Effect of pearl layer powder on lipid peroxides and lipids in coronary disease patients” Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi.1987 Oct;7(10):596-7, 580.

69.Kangmin Gong, Yuanlong Zheng, Liping Hu, Xueyan Tao: “The healing effects of Pearl on 75 patients with high bloodpressure.” Practical Journal of Integrating Chinese with Modern Medicine 10(5): 444 1997

70.Kangmin Gong, Yuanlong Zheng, Liping Hu, Xueyan Tao: “The healing effects of Pearl on 90 seniors with high bloodpressure.” The Zhejiang Traditional Chinese Medicine Journal 456 2000

71.Dongmei Wang, Yanping Song, Xifeng Hou, Junliang Gao: “Study of the pharmacology of Pearl Blood Pressure LoweringMedicine.” Shaanxi TCM Journal 23(4): 362, 2002

72.Daqing Zhou, Senlin Wu:”The antiinflammatary and antioxidant effects of pearl.” Journal of Zhejiang College of TCM 25(1):41 (2001)

73.Chen Yijun, Zhaokang Yuan, “The study of the inhibition of tumor growth with Pearl porphyrins,” Modern PharmacologyApplication Journal, 7 (6): 48, 1990

74.Lopez E, Le Faou A, Borzeix S, Berland S.“Stimulation of rat cutaneous fibroblasts and their synthetic activity by implants of powdered pearl (mother of pearl).” Tissue Cell. 2000 Feb;32(1):95-101.

75.Xinzhong Zhao, Zhemin Zhang, Jiqing Quan, Hongwei Qin: “fifty cases of using pearl to treat wrist cartilage.” HebeiTraditional Chinese Medicine Journal 13(5): , 1991

76.Linke Li, Yiyu Huang, Yin Chen: “The clinical study on using pearl to treat chronic mouth ulcer”, Journal of Beijing Universityof TCM 22(5): 66, 1999

77.Huang A., “The clinical study of pearl anti-burn paste”, Guangxi Medical Journal, 19 (1): 71, 1997

78.Wanfu Li, “The clinical study of using pearl formula to treat chronic skin ulcer”, Gansu Chinese Medicine Journal, 8(2): 10,1997

79.Jianxin Pan, Zhenlun Gu, Zengnian Qian, Yajun Wang: “Study of the effects of pearl on central nervous system.” ChineseTraditional Medicine 21(11): 596, 1999

80.Huang S., “The effect of pearl on children with mental disabilities”, Journal of Chinese Herbal Medicine 1976, 8:22

 

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